Nigel Cross

Emeritus Professor

Nigel Cross is Emeritus Professor of Design Studies


CV synopsis

B.Sc. Architecture (University of Bath).
M.Sc. Industrial Design Technology (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology - UMIST).
Ph.D. Computer Aided Design (UMIST).

Appointed Lecturer in Design, The Open University, 1970.
Promoted to a Personal Chair in Design Studies, 1988.
Visiting Professor of Design Methodology, Delft University of Technology, 1990-96.
Emeritus Professor of Design Studies, The Open University, 2008.

Emeritus Editor-in-Chief, Design Studies journal.

Honours and Awards:
Institution of Engineering Designers’ Trophy award for outstanding contributions to design education and research, 2012.
Elected Honorary Fellow, The Design Society, 2007.
Lifetime Achievement Award, Design Research Society, 2005.

Keynote conference speeches:
DesignEd Asia Conference, Hong Kong, China, 2013
Design Research and Development Conference, São Luis, Brazil, 2012
Singapore Ministry of Education Conference on Design and Technology Education, Singapore, 2010
DESIRE Network Doctoral Summer School, Aveiro, Portugal, 2010
International Conference on Engineering Education, Coimbra, Portugal, 2007
DesignTrain International Congress, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
NSF Science of Design Symposium, Arcata, California, USA, 2007
International Symposium of the Swiss Design Network, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006
Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research, Douliou, Taiwan, 2005
IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, Kyoto, Japan, 2004
ACM International Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Loughborough, UK, 2002
International Congress of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID), Seoul, Korea, 2001
Asian Design Conference, Seoul, Korea, 2001
Design+Research Conference, Milan, Italy, 2000
Artificial Intelligence in Design Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, 1998

With academic and practical backgrounds in architecture and industrial design, I have been engaged in design research since the nineteen-sixties. My research has been in computer-aided design, design methodology, design epistemology and design cognition.

Nigel Cross: Research History - selected publications
Many of these publications can be accessed through the Publications tab above.

Computer Aided Design
'Impact of Computers on the Architectural Design Process', The Architects' Journal, 22 March 1972, pp. 623-628.
The Automated Architect: human and machine roles in design, Pion Ltd., London, 1977. ISBN 0 850860571
Italian edition, L'Architetto Automatizzato, Liguori Editore, Napoli, Italy, 1985. ISBN 88 20711710

'Can a Machine Design?', Design Issues, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 44-50, 2001.

Design Methodology
Design Participation (editor), Academy Editions, London, 1972.
'Design Method and Scientific Method' (with J. Naughton and D. Walker), Design Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 195-201, 1981.
Developments in Design Methodology (editor), John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1984. ISBN 0 471102482
Engineering Design Methods (first edition), John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1989. ISBN 0 471922153
Korean edition published by Mijin, Seoul, 1993. ISBN 89 40801326
Spanish edition, Métodos de Diseño, Noriega Editores, Balderas, Mexico, 1999. ISBN 968 1853024

Design Methodology and Relationships with Science (co-editor with M. de Vries and D. Grant), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993. ISBN 0 79232191X
'Science and Design Methodology: a review', Research in Engineering Design, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 63-69, 1993.
'Observations of Teamwork and Social Processes in Design' (with A. Clayburn Cross), Design Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 143-170, 1995.
'Creativity in Design: analyzing and modeling the creative leap', Leonardo, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 311-317, 1997.
'Descriptive Models of Creative Design: application to an example', Design Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 427-440, 1997.
'Creativity in the Design Process: co-evolution of problem-solution' (with K. Dorst), Design Studies, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 425-437, 2001.
'Solution Driven versus Problem Driven Design: strategies and outcomes' (with C. Kruger), Design Studies, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 527-548, 2006.
Engineering Design Methods: strategies for product design (fourth edition), John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, 2008. ISBN 978 047051926 4
Japanese edition published by Baifukan, Tokyo, 2008. ISBN 978 4563067717
Chinese edition published by China Social Sciences Press, Beijing, China, 2016.

Design Epistemology
'Designerly Ways of Knowing', Design Studies, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 221-227, 1982.
'The Nature and Nurture of Design Ability', Design Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 127-140, 1990.
'Discovering Design Ability', in R. Buchanan and V. Margolin (eds.), Discovering Design, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1995.
'Design Research: a disciplined conversation', Design Issues, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 5-10, 1999.
'Designerly Ways of Knowing: design discipline versus design science', Design Issues, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 49-55, 2001.
Designerly Ways of Knowing, Springer, London, 2006. ISBN 1 846283000; 978 1849965736
Paperback edition by Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland, 2007. ISBN 978 3764384845
Chinese edition published by Huazhong University of Science & Technology Press, Wuhan, China, 2013. ISBN 978 7560984315

'From a Design Science to a Design Discipline: understanding designerly ways of knowing and thinking' in R.Michel (ed.) Design Research Now, Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland, 2007, pp. 41-52. ISBN 978 3 7643 8471 5

Design Cognition, Thinking and Expertise
Research in Design Thinking (co-editor with K. Dorst and N. Roozenburg), Delft University Press, Delft, 1992.
Analysing Design Activity (co-editor with H. Christiaans and K. Dorst), John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1996. ISBN 0 471960608
'Winning by Design: the methods of Gordon Murray, racing car designer' (with A. Clayburn Cross), Design Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.91-107, 1996.
'Expert Designers' (with A. Clayburn Cross) in E. Frankenberger, P. Badke-Schaub and H. Birkhofer (eds.), Designers: The Key to Successful Product Development, Springer-Verlag, London, 1998, pp. 71-84. ISBN 1 85233 031 7
'Expertise in Engineering Design' (with A. Clayburn Cross), Research in Engineering Design, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 141-149, 1998.
'Natural Intelligence in Design', Design Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 25-39, 1999.
'Design Cognition: results from protocol and other empirical studies of design activity', in C. Eastman, M. McCracken and W. Newstatter (eds.) Design Knowing and Learning: Cognition in Design Education, Elsevier, Oxford, 2001, pp. 79-103. ISBN 0 08 043868 7
'Achieving Pleasure From Purpose: the methods of Kenneth Grange, product designer', The Design Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 48-58, 2001.
'Creative Cognition in Design: processes of exceptional designers' in T. Hewett and T. Kavanagh (eds.) Creativity and Cognition, ACM Press, New York, USA, 2002, pp. 14-19. ISBN 1 58113 465 7
Expertise in Design (co-editor with E. Edmonds), Creativity and Cognition Press, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, 2003. ISBN 0 975153307
'Expertise in Design: an overview', Design Studies, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 427-441, 2004.
Design Thinking: Understanding how designers think and work, Berg/Bloomsbury, Oxford and New York, 2011. ISBN 978 184788 6378 (hb), 978 1847886361 (pb)
Chinese edition published by Shandong Publishing House, Jinan, China, 2013. ISBN 978 7547408407
'Expertise in Professional Design' in K. Anders Ericsson, R. Hoffman, A. Kozbelt, A. M. Williams (eds.) Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2018, pp. 372-388. ISBN 9781107137554

Design Thinking Research Symposia
This series of symposia was initiated by Nigel Cross with Norbert Roozenburg, Kees Dorst and Henri Christiaans at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, in 1991, with an international meeting of invited researchers on the topic of 'Research in Design Thinking'. A second meeting was also held in Delft, in 1994, focusing on the use of protocol analysis as a research tool for analysing design activity. This became known as the 'Delft Protocols Workshop'. For the first time in design research, a common data set (videotapes of both individual and team design activity) was provided to researchers around the world, for their own analyses, presented at the workshop. A third meeting was held at the Istanbul Technical University, Turkey, in 1996, on the topic of descriptive models of design, and the fourth meeting was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA, in 1999, on the topic of design representation. It was there that the organisers introduced the term 'Design Thinking Research Symposia' as the generic title for the series. Subsequent meetings have been held again in Delft and also in Australia, the UK and the USA. A total of eleven meetings have now been held in the series, with the most recent, in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2016, also celebrating the 25th anniversary of the initiation of the series.
The series of meetings has produced a substantial set of publications in books and journals, and has helped to foster an international community of scholars and researchers focused on studying design cognition. The proceedings and publications from the DTRS series form a continuing archive of research in design thinking.
The published output from the symposia series includes:
DTRS1 1991: Cross, N., Dorst, K. and N., Roozenburg (eds.) (1992) Research in Design Thinking, Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands.
DTRS2 1994: Cross, N., Christiaans, H., and Dorst, K. (eds.) (1996) Analysing Design Activity, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
Dorst, K. (ed.) (1995) 'Analysing Design Activity', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 16, no. 2.

DTRS3 1996: Akin, Ö. (ed.) (1997)  'Descriptive Models of Design', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 18, no. 4.
Akin, Ö. (ed.) (1998), 'Models of Design', special issue of Automation in Construction, vol. 7, no. 2/3.

DTRS4 1999: Goldschmidt, G. & Porter, W.L. (eds.) (2004). Design Representation, Springer, London, UK.
Goldschmidt, G. and Porter, W.L. (eds.) (2000), 'Visual Design Representation', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 21. no.5.  
Goldschmidt, G. and Porter, W.L. (eds.) (2001), 'Design Representation', special issue of Automation in Construction, vol. 20. no. 6.  

DTRS5 2001: Lloyd, P. and Christiaans, H. (eds.) (2001) Designing in Context, Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands.
Lloyd, P. (2003) 'Designing in Contex', special issue of Design Studies, vol.24. no.3.

DTRS6 2003: Cross, N. and Edmonds, E. (2003) Expertise in Design, Creativity and Cognition Press, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Cross, N (ed.). (2004) 'Expertise in Design', special Issue of Design Studies, vol. 25, no.5.

DTRS7 2007: McDonnell, J. and Lloyd, P. (eds.) (2009) About: Designing - Analysing Design Meetings, Taylor & Francis, London, UK.
McDonnell, J. and Lloyd, P. (eds.) (2009) 'Analysing Design Conversations', special issue of CoDesign, vol. 5, no. 1.
Lloyd, P. and McDonnell, J. (eds.) (2009) 'Values in the Design Process', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 29, no. 2.

DTRS8 2010: Dorst, K., Stewart, S., Staudinger, I., Paton, B. and Dong, A. (eds.) (2010) Interpreting Design Thinking, DAB Documents, Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
Stewart, S. (ed.) (2011) 'Interpreting Design Thinking', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 32, no. 6.

DTRS9 2012: Rodgers, P. (ed.) (2012) Articulating Design Thinking, Libri Publishing, Faringdon, UK.
Rodgers, P. (ed.) 2013: 'Articulating Design Thinking', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 34, no. 4.

DTRS10 2014: Adams, R. & Siddiqui, J. (eds.) (2016). Analyzing Design Review Conversations. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
Adams, R. S., Cardella, M and Purzer, Ş. (eds.) (2016) 'Design Review Conversations', special issue of Design Studies, vol. 45, part A.
Adams, R.S., McMullen, S. and Fosmire, M. (eds.) (2016) 'Co-designing review conversations', special issue of CoDesign, vol. 12, no. 01-02.
DTRS11 2016: Christensen, B., Ball, L. & Halskov, K. (eds.) (2017) Analysing Design Thinking: Studies of Cross-Cultural Co-Creation. CRC Press, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Halskov, K. and Christensen, B. (eds.) (2018) 'Designing Across Cultures', special issue of CoDesign, vol.14, no. 2.

My Open University teaching was mainly on undergraduate level courses in design and technology. I worked on the first Technology Foundation course The Man-Made World (1972), and co-designed with John Naughton its successor Living With Technology (1980), which opened-up technology studies to a wider audience. I Chaired the first OU Design course Man-Made Futures: Design and Technology (1975), and the first CAD course Computer Aided Design (1987). I worked on many other courses, such as Design:Processes and Products, Design and Designing, Design Thinking, Control of Technology, Innovation:Design, Environment and Strategy and Communicating Technology.
Some aspects of our approach to design education at the OU were treated in my inaugural lecture as Professor of Design Studies. See:
'The Nature and Nurture of Design Ability', Design Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 127-140, 1990.

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